A Useful Citizen and Honest Man

J. T. Weybrecht

January 27 1829 – January 31, 1895

The elaborate Victorian unpolished granite monument for John Theobold Weybrecht in the Alliance City Cemetery, in Alliance, Ohio, is one of the tallest in the cemetery and speaks to the success of the businessman.  An immigrant from Alsace-Lorraine, France, Weybrecht opened and operated the first lumberyard in Alliance with his sons, Benjamin and Charles. 

The monument, topped with a draped urn, features a bronze medallion with a likeness of Weybrecht as its centerpiece, commissioned in 1896.  The bas-relief or low-relief of Weybrecht was sculpted by Ohio artist Ora Coltman (December 3, 1858 – July 2, 1940).  The difficulty in creating a flattened sculpture of a face is giving it a three-dimensional look and feel and capturing the visual qualities of the man.  Coltman’s talent is clear.

Coltman was a painter, as well as a sculptor.  His painting, “The Dominance of the City”, is his most famous work, which is a sweeping triptych of Cleveland was commissioned by the Public Works Art Program in 1933.  The painting was the first New Deal mural in the city and can be seen on the third floor of the Cleveland Public Library. 

Written on the medallion is the following inscription, “Born in Alsace, France, January 27th, 1829.  Died at Alliance, Ohio, January 31, 1895, known to this community for forty years as a useful citizen and honest man.”

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A Soldier’s Service



BORN OCT. 22, 1827,


OCTOBER 2, 1849,


AGED 51 YRS. & 7 DAYS.

No other war was like the American Civil War for Americans because every sailor and soldier, every collateral death, every field or railway yard that was destroyed, every city or town devastated by artillery was American.  And, more Americans were killed in the Civil War than any other war that Americans have fought.  The war tore the country apart and threatened the existence of the Republic. 

Cemeteries throughout the United States feature memorials to honor the soldiers who fought.  The soldiers, proud of their service, also denoted it in many ways—some with elaborately carved commissioned statues, some with inscriptions that memorialized each battle in which they served, while others have little more than a metal marker that noted their service.

The humble zinc grave marker of A.L. Jones in the Alliance City Cemetery in Alliance, Ohio, doesn’t give his birth or death date, let alone the unit in which he served, but it is adorned with two symbols representing his service—on one side of the column an American flag and on another, a uniformed soldier astride a strutting horse.

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The Author of the 14th Amendment?

Stephen Neal

June 11, 1817 – June 23, 1905

The large, polished granite column topped with a bronze bust in the Oak Hill Cemetery in Lebanon, Indiana, commemorates the life of Stephen Neal.  Neal was a prominent citizen of Lebanon, serving as an attorney, represented Boone County in the Indiana State House, and later as circuit court judge. 

However, Neal is most remembered for his purported role in the drafting of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Various reports credited Neal with sending a draft he wrote of the 14th Amendment to Godlove S. Orth.  Orth was a former Indiana state legislator serving in the U.S. Congress in 1866 when the amendment was being considered. However, there is debate as to whether this claim is true or not. 

Amendment XIV

Section 1.

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2.

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

Section 3.

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5.

The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

The bust of Neal was sculpted by Clara Barth Leonard Dieman (1877-1959) who studied sculpture with the great artists Lorado Taft and Charles Mulligan at the Art Institute of Chicago.  Dieman’s career and life took her to many parts of the country where she pursued her craft in Illinois, Texas, Colorado, New York, Pennsylvania, Iowa, and New Mexico where she spent the last part of her life.  One of Neal’s sons also gave a copy of the bust to the Indiana State Government, which is now on display in the Indiana State Capitol rotunda.

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A Special Section

The Benevolent Protective Order of Elks (B. P. O. E.), one of the many fraternal organizations in the United States, was originally a drinking club called the Jolly Corks founded in 1866 by a group of actors, who evidently liked to drink.  The club members made the fateful decision to change their organization’s name and increase their mission from frolic to public service. 

Like many fraternal orders have sections of cemeteries set aside for their members, while some even have separate cemeteries.  The Valhalla Memorial Gardens in Bloomington, Indiana, has a special section dedicated to the members of The Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. 

The section in the Valhalla Memorial Garden is designated by a large limestone block that includes the two most significant symbols for the Elks Club members.  The Elk, of course, is carved on one side of the block.  On the other side is the clock with the hands frozen at the 11:00 o’clock hour when the Elks traditionally remember their members who have passed away with a solemn toast. 

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Four Virtues



DEC. 17, 1805,


MARCH 15, 1870




JANUARY 21, 1898



JULY 13, 1847,

DIED MAR. 20, 1852



JAN. 15, 1849,

DIED JUNE 10, 1871.



JUNE 15, 1851

DIED SEPT. 18, 1891.

The elaborately decorated white marble Phelps Family Monument in the Forest Lawn Cemetery in Buffalo, New York, is a Victorian confection of design and funerary symbols, sculpted by Nicola Cantalamessa-Papotti (1831?-1910) in Rome in 1876.  The monument is topped with the angel Gabriel with pelicans at his feet festooned with garlands of flowers.  Above the inscription on the face of the monument is the winged hourglass symbolizing the ephemeral nature of life on Earth and time itself.  The memorial features four allegorical figures representing four virtues—Hope, Faith, Charity, and Fortitude. Hope, Faith, and Charity are considered as the theological virtues which have been identified by Christians seeking to live a good and moral life.  Fortitude was considered a cardinal virtue by ancient Greek philosophers.


The representation of Hope can be easily found in American cemeteries.  Hope is most often portrayed as a woman standing and leaning against an anchor.  The anchor is an ancient Christian symbol that has been found in early catacomb burials.  The anchor was used by early Christians as a disguised cross.  The anchor also served as a symbol of Christ and his anchoring influence in the lives of Christians.  Just as an anchor does not let a moored boat drift, the anchoring influence of Christ does not allow the Christian life to drift.


The figure holds a cross in her hand as she looks upwards to the Heavens. The Cross symbolizes her Christian faith. Often, Faith is also depicted carrying a palm which represents victory over death.  Another symbol often seen in conjunction with the cross is the laurel wreath, which dates to Roman times when soldiers wore them as triumphal signs of glory.


Quite often in Renaissance paintings, the figure of Charity is depicted as a woman breast-feeding an infant.  However, in the more staid and modest Victorian era, Charity is shown in the process of pulling her garment to one side to reveal her breast.  The allegorical figure can also be found holding food for the hungry or clothes for the unclothed.  The great theologian, Thomas Aquinas, reckoned that charity was the most excellent of the virtues because it united man to God and that the habit of charity extended to love for one’s neighbor, as well as to God.


Fortitude is one of the cardinal virtues from classical philosophy. Plato wrote about the four cardinal virtues in The Republic which he identified as Prudence, Temperance, Justice, and Fortitude.  Only Fortitude was assigned to the warrior class, hence the allegorical figure is often depicted wearing armor and carrying a shield and sometimes standing on a vanquished animal such as a lion.  However, in this example, she is depicted as a woman wearing classical robes with a club in one hand and what looks like a sheepskin in the other.  The theologian Saint Augustine wrote about Fortitude as being “love readily bearing all things for the sake of the loved object.”

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What’s In a Name?

Isaiah Sellers

1802 – 1864

It seems that in many social gatherings, one of the first questions people ask one another is, “What do you do?”  It is as if a person’s occupation is who they are.  And, in fact, some occupations carry with them a title that becomes part of their name—a doctor, for instance, Dr. Fauci—I don’t even know his first name; or someone in the military, such as, General Pershing.  Or even an honorary title that they carry with them throughout their lives, such as, the Kentucky Fried Chicken founder, Colonel Sanders. 

Another example of this is a ship’s captain, always referred to by the title, Captain, followed by their surname.  Isaiah Sellers is one such person—Captain Sellers took it one step further, with his occupation on full display on his monument in the Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri.  Sellers is credited with hundreds of accident-free trips between St. Louis and New Orleans.  That was during a time when the Mississippi River was rife with snags and sandbars that sank or damaged many a steamboat paddling up and down the river carrying goods.

According to various accounts, Sellers himself commissioned the white marble sculpture that now serves as his gravestone; clearly indicating that his occupation was central to who he was.  The monument shows the commanding river boat pilot at the helm.

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Mystery Solved!

Mystery solved thanks to three readers who have great detective skills.  Chris, Mary, and a reader only known by the alpha—letter combination “gsbo3632” jumped in and found pins on eBay for sale that gave the clue to the society known as the Modern Brotherhood of America (the MBA on the metal grave marker).  Turns out the Modern Brotherhood of America was a membership organization founded in Tipton, Iowa, in 1897, whose main purpose was to provide insurance to its members.

Readers coming to the rescue could be called crowdsourcing, which the dictionary defines as, “obtaining (information or input into a particular task or project) by enlisting the services of a large number of people, either paid or unpaid, typically via the internet.”  But I call it friends helping friends!



1887 – 1910

The metal marker next to the George Van Deusen gravestone in the Woodland Cemetery in Jackson, Michigan, is no longer a mystery. 

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Metal Marker Mystery



1887 – 1910

The metal marker next to the George Van Deusen gravestone in the Woodland Cemetery in Jackson, Michigan, is a mystery.  The handshake appears to signify membership in a brotherhood, but I can’t unravel what the meaning behind “MBA 841.”  It seems to be a lodge number—perhaps.  I also can’t find a reference for the letters “FLP.”  Any ideas?

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Zinc Open Book Marker





BORN DEC. 10, 1858

DIED APR. 11, 1888





The Riverside Cemetery, on a hillside just outside the city of Mahomet, Illinois, has several zinc markers produced by the White Bronze Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut.  The company produced catalogs that salespeople could carry with them to show prospective buyers the many marker design options and large array of symbols were available.  The various symbols could be bolted in place on many grave marker styles by special order much the same way that an erector set is bolted together.

In this example, the marker is in the shape of an open book.  The open book is a fairly common symbol found on gravestones. The motif can represent the Book of Life with the names of the just registered on its pages.  This book, like any book in a cemetery, can also symbolize the Word of God in the form of the Bible.

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Ghost Figure

For me, the most poignant and tender gravestones are those for children.  The loss of a child is devastating, a loss that even time cannot heal.  And, many cemeteries have special sections specifically for child or infant burials—sometimes labeled “Babyland” or something similar.  Often these sections are centered around a sculpture of Jesus surrounded by children—or sometimes a lamb.

In the Resurrection Cemetery in Madison, Wisconsin, a sculpture atop a columbarium features a mother and father who have lost a child to death.  The mother is doubled over with grief, her head in her hand, while the father longingly reaches for his child—a child who appears in the sculpture as glass.  The light clay-colored sculptures of the parents contrasted against the clear sculpture of the child is haunting—as if she is disappearing before our very eyes—a ghost figure.   

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