Agriculture

img_7225

Elisha King

1814 – 1902

Sarah B. King

1826 – 1884

Alice Waddell King

1841 — 1921

Henry C. King

1842 – 1869

Indiana King McFatridge

1852 – 1874

Fanny Dean Havens

Wife of L. H. Havens

1859 — 1886

Rebecca J. King

1838 — 1871

Delilah King

1791 — 1865

Ulysses King

1868 — 1890

John S. King

1852 — 1871

img_7235

The following is part of a biographical sketch from the “Atlas of Rush County, Indiana“, published by J.H. Beers in 1879:

ELISHA KING – – Among the offspring of the early and hardy pioneers of the Western wilds, we find notable examples of men of vigorous thought and forcible character – men who would fill any station in life with fidelity and honor.  The subject of this sketch was born in Bourbon County, Ky., October 30, 1814, and is the son of Samuel King, who was born in Fauquier County, Va., in March, 1788, and Delilah (Beal) King, born in Bourbon Co., Ky. in 1791.  Tradition has it that the Kings came from Scotland, long before the war of independence, and probably as early as the Sixteenth Century settling in Virginia, where Elisha’s grandfather and father – Jesse and Samuel King – were born, this being as far back as we could trace the “family-tree”. 

Jesse King moved to Kentucky when Samuel was a boy, where he grew up, and was married in 1810, to Delilah Beal, whose family were of Irish descent.  The Kings were among the first settlers in that part of Kentucky, and had to undergo all dangers and hardships related by history of “the dark and bloody ground”. In 1815, Samuel and family moved from Kentucky to Wayne County, Ind., Elisha then but 3 months old, and here his childhood days were spent.  At that time, Wayne County was a wilderness of forest, with but here and there a partially-cleared farm.  He could stand in his father’s cabin door and see the wild game disporting among the huge trunks of the primitive wood.  During his boyhood, wild deer were more plentiful than domestic cattle, and wild turkeys outnumbered the poultry of the barn-yard.  Such were the scenes amid which young King started in life.  He was the third in a family of twelve children, and the oldest son.  The family are as follows:  Cytha, Parmelia, Elisha, Ann, William, James, Archibald, John, David, Nancy, Eliza and Conwell, seven of whom are living… 

Elisha being the oldest boy, much of the work on his father’s farm fell to his lot, and the advantages for attending school thereby much lessened.  In his boyhood, he went to a subscription school about three months – there being no such thing as a public school, or a dollar of school funds in the whole State at the time – therefore, when he reached his 18th year he could not tell one figure from another.  Feeling his great loss, he determined to have that knowledge seldom gained outside of the schoolroom, at the age of 22 he attended a high school five months in Centerville, Wayne Co., Ind. where he obtained a fair English education, being able today to solve any ordinary mathematical question. He was married in Wayne County, Indiana April 27, 1837, to Martha Ann Wood, daughter of David J. and Rebecca Wood, natives of Kanawha Co., Va.  Mrs. King was born in Wayne County, Indiana, April 19, 1818.  The following children were born to them: 

  • Rebecca J. born December 11, 1838, died October 4, 1871;
  • next were born triplets, one boy and two girls, Feb. 21, 1841, all of whom died in infancy;
  • Henry Clay, born May 10, 1842, died March 8, 1869 (he was a farmer by occupation); 
  • Julius Harrison, born Feb. 15, 1844, died August 28, 1856;
  • Samuel Franklin, born April 27, 1846, died Sept. 8, 1871 (he was an attorney at law in Rushville, and was considered one of the brightest young lawyers in the city; he was a soldier of the Union army serving 100 days);
  • Martha E. born Aug. 7, 1849 (wife of Noah Matlock of Rushville Township; Indiana born March 6, 1852, died July 20 1874 (wife of Dr. L. C. McFatridge, of Carroll Co., Ind.) and
  • John Wesley, born Oct. 29, 1854, died in Sept. 1856.  Mrs. King died in this county, Dec. 26, 1856.  Her life was one of industry and good deeds, and she was ever a good wife and loving mother. 

img_7232

He was again married, June 15, 1858, in Rushville to Sallie B. Havens, who was born in this county May 5, 1826; she was the daughter of the Rev. James Havens, a native of Fleming County, Kentucky, and Aima (Higginbothom) Havens, born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, who married in Fleming County, Kentucky, in 1809, moved to Highland County, Ohio, and afterward to this State, where they arrived in 1823, settling in Decatur County, moving to this county in 1825.  They died in Rushville; she March 23, 1864 and her husband, Nov. 4 following.  Mr. King has one child by this union – Fannie D. H. King, born Aug. 30, 1859. 

…He came to this county in 1841, and settled on Section 24 of Rushville Twp. and has ever since lived in the same township.  He now owns 640 acres of the best land in Rush County, most of which he made by his own industry, always saving part of what he earned, and then investing those earnings judiciously. 

Politically, he has belonged to the Republican party since it’s organization, before which he was a Whig, casting his first vote for William Henry Harrison, for President in 1840.  He has been Justice of the Peace, in Rushville Township four years and in 1874 was the nominee of his party for the Legislature, but through the influence of local issues, the whole of the ticket was defeated.  He has always been a zealous advocate never having used liquors or tobacco, and had done all in his power to counteract the terrible and baneful influence of whisky.  He had been a friend of religion and education all is life, and takes a lively interest in Sabbath-school work, in which he has been engaged twenty years.  He was Superintendent of Sabbath schools in Rushville and Anderson Twp. five years, and teacher of the same in Rushville nine years.  He belongs to no church, interpreting the Bible for himself but his sympathy and work has always been with Methodism.  Mrs. King being the daughter of such an eminent Methodist divine, is a strict follower of the Methodist Church and an earnest worker in the good cause.  Mr. King has taken an active part in every public enterprise of the county since his residence in it, and had devoted as much as most citizens of Rush County toward the building of turnpikes, having given $2000 for that purpose.  When J.M. & I. Railroad was built, Mr. King was a poor man, but gave $600 toward helping on that necessary enterprise, and has given $200 to the C.H. & I. Railroad.  He was one of the first members of the Rush County Agricultural Society, and has been a Director of the same several times, which position of trust and confidence he now occupies and has worked hard and earnestly for its success since its present organization.  In fact, Mr. King is a public-spirited man in every sense of the word, and has, in long years of active business enterprise and continued industry amassed an ample fortune.  His actions have ever been characterized by strict honesty and sterling integrity, and he has enjoyed a uniform and unwavering prosperity for many years.       

After the death of his second wife, Sarah, Elisha King married his third wife, Alice M. Waddell, on October 21, 1885, to whom he was married until his death on February 6, 1902. King had suffered for nearly four weeks with pneumonia before he succumbed. He was buried on February 9th, 1902—in the East Hill Cemetery at Rushville, Rush County, Indiana.

The East Hill Cemetery was laid out in June of 1859 by the renowned landscape designer Leopold Weltz, who had been the landscape architect for the King of Prussia and Czar of Russia before he migrated to the United States to practice his craft in the gardens and cemeteries of Ohio and Indiana. Welz laid out the East Hill Cemetery to be a “garden cemetery” which was a movement away from ‘burial grounds” to more serene park-like cemeteries. The movement started at the famed Pere Lachaise Cemetery at Paris and spread to other parts of the world.

In June of 1903, the Elisha King monument was erected in Section 3, of the East Hill Cemetery in the King family plot. The monument was created by the W.H. Mullins Company of Salem, Ohio. Tony Schrichte designed the monument. The sculptor is listed as PELLER on the monment.

img_7238

In 2012, the cemetery board applied to have the cemetery placed on the National Register of historic Places. In the application, the committee wrote this about the monument on the King plot, “By far the largest of these [monuments and gravestones within the cemetery] is that of Agriculture cast about 1903 for the grave of Elisha King, prominent farmer and community leader and early member of the cemetery board. “The tallest statue in the cemetery is…A sixteen-foot bronze statue of an allegorical figure of Agriculture stands atop an ornate granite base twenty feet high. The base resembles a small Classical temple. The plinth has large panels, one of which is carved ‘ELISHA KING/1814-1902” in raised lettering. Atop this base is a shaft surrounded by four Corinthian columns that supports a full entablature with foliate frieze, dentil, and egg-and-dart moldings. This in turn supports the heroic bronze statue, a robed female figure holding a sheaf of wheat … in her proper left hand while her right hand rests on a plow.”

 img_7245

The majestic 16-foot bronze sculpture of the female figure atop the 20-foot King monument is an allegorical figure representing agriculture, for which, Elisha King owed his fortune.   Agriculture had been King’s life’s work. The monument is a proper and fitting tribute to such a successful and prosperous farmer.

img_7305

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

A memorial for his young wife and her love of horses

img_4001

INA L. PALMER

WIFE OF W. H. AXTON

JAN. 24, 1874. DIED FEB. 4. 1898.

AGED 24 YRS. 10 DS.

W. H. AXTON

1866 – 1928

On the sloping hill across from the Zion Methodist Church in rural Indiana not far from Richland is a country churchyard cemetery. The magnificent Axton monument inside that cemetery, features a nearly life-size horse on top of a large base. The horse was carved from Green River limestone by master carver Ira Correll who was working at the Reavis and Beloat Marble Works at Princeton, Indiana. The statue was modelled after a Kentucky-bred horse and set atop the monument because of Ina Axton’s love of horses. The monument is 12 feet high from the base to the top of the statue and towers above all of the other gravestones and markers in the graveyard.

On the base are two incised designs displaying insignias of the Knights of Pythias and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.

img_4005

The left corner of the base displays the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, a fraternal organization that formed in England in the 1700s as a service organization. The American association was founded in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 26, 1819. According to the I.O.O.F. Website, “Thomas Wildey and four members of the Order from England instituted Washington Lodge No. 1. This lodge received its charter from Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows in England.” The three links of a chain is the main symbol of the society. Inside the three links are three letters, F L T, which signify the organizations motto: Friendship, Love, and Truth. The links are carved above the All-Seeing Eye of Providence with rays of light emanating from it.  This symbol can be traced back to Egyptian mythology to the Eye of Horus.

img_4004

The right side of the base has the insignia of the Knights of Pythias. In 1864, the Knights of Pythias was founded by Justus H. Rathbone, making it the very first fraternal organization to receive a charter under an Act of the United States Congress.  The society is based on the Greek story of friendship from 400 B. C. between Damon and Pythias, members of a school founded by Pythagoras.  According to their Website, Pythians: promote cooperation and friendship between people of good will, find happiness through service to mankind, believe that friendship is essential in life, view home life as a top priority, show an interest in public affairs, enhance their home communities, respect and honor the law of the land, and expand their influence with people of like interests and energy.

The carving features many of the symbols that are significant to the Knights of Pythias.  A falcon sits atop a knight’s helmet resting on a pyramid-shaped shield with three letters, “F”, “C”, and “B”, which stand for their motto, FRIENDSHIP, CHARITY, and BENEVOLENCE. The shield has a incised skull and cross bones with crossed battle axes.

img_4002

The focal point of the entire monument is the meticulously carved horse, which was a nod to W. H. Axton’s young wife’s passion and love of horses.

img_4007

Posted in Symbolism | Leave a comment

Harmony with the Universe

img_4217

HENRY D. STEVENSON

1818 – 1868

ELIZABETH HAND

STEVENSON

DIED NOV. 22, 1913

CORA BELLE

STEVENSON

DIED MAY 16, 1941

The lichen-encrusted Stevenson family monument in the Spring Grove Cemetery at Cincinnati, Ohio, depicts a young girl leaning against a harp as she looks upward, presumably toward the heavens.

img_4225

The harp has long been considered the instrument of angels. The light and airy tones that emanate from the harp, ethereal and almost mystical, have long been thought of as the sound of Heaven.  The harp as the instrument used to praise God also signifies harmony with the universe.

img_4223

Posted in Symbolism | Leave a comment

Ruins

img_4303

CONRAD WINDISCH

1825 – 1887

SOPHIE WINDISCH

1827 – 1901

A passerby in the Spring Grove Cemetery strolling past the gravestone of Conrad Windisch might mistake it for a ruin—which was the whole idea. The white-marble marker carved to look like an English abbey ruin has a gothic pointed-arched window with a tree stump leaning across the face of the stone signifying a life cut short. Above the window is a winged hourglass. The soap opera, Days of Our Lives, has as their catchphrase, “Like sands through the hourglass, so are the days of our lives.”  The meaning of that catchphrase is clear–life passes by very quickly.  Life measured by the grains of sand slip through one side of the hourglass to the other in a flash.  The hourglass symbol on a gravestone, represents the same thought of time fleeting by quickly. All of this sits on a large base with a large oval convex cartouche with “Conrad Windisch” carved into it.

img_4307

The gravestone marks the graves of Conrad and Sophie Windisch. Conrad was a German immigrant from Munich who settled in the United States in the mid-19th Century. After working for several brewers Windisch founded his own brewery with his business partner and brother-in law, Gottlieb Mulhauser. The building that housed the enormous brewery had two large stone lions in the gables on top leading to the brewery’s unofficial name—Lion Brewery. Windisch and Mulhauser were very successful and became the largest brewer in Ohio.

img_4306

The Windisch gravestone harkens back to the 18th Century when English gardens were quite often landscaped to feature faux Roman temples and decaying English castles and abbeys. These became known as Victorian follies—that is a building or structure that was built first and foremost as decoration but suggested some other high purpose or former use.

img_25281

One of the most interesting monuments in the Metarie Cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana, was built for Henry J. Egan, a Confederate Lieutenant Colonel, who was killed April 6, 1865, at Amelia Springs, Virginia, during General Robert E. Lee’s retreat. The monument was built to appear like a ramshackle Gothic Revival-style Church. It is a sham, however. The ruin was designed by Charles A. Orleans, one of the leading monument builders in New Orleans at the time, who was at the height of his fame when it was built in 1881. The Victorian folly, built to look like one thing when it is actually another, is a marble monument complete with mock cracks and crumbling stone to deceive the passerby. Carved above the arched doorway into the tomb are the words, “Sic itur ad astra” – Latin which translates to “Thus to the stars”.

img_25341

As author Phil Nuxhull writes in his book, Beauty in the Grove: Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum, the Windisch gravestone, like the Egan monument, conveys the “transitory nature of all earthly things.”

img_25321

(Inscription on the back wall of the church)

In Memory of

Bentinck Egan

Who died Dec. 27, 1881

And his brothers

Walter

Frederock

Yelverton

Henry

Augustus

The Good Sons of

Dr. J. S. Egan and I. M. Yelverton

Mother died 1884

Father died 1891

(on the floor )

Lieutenant Colonel Henry I. Egan

Killed at Amelia Springs, Va.

While in command of

Sharpshooters, Gordon’s Division,

Covering Retreat of Lee’s Army

April 6, 1865, Aged 24 years.

Dr. Yelverton B. Egan

Killed at the Battle of Sharpsburg

September 17, 1863, aged 24 years.

 

Letitia M. Yelverton Egan

Their mother

Died in London England 1884

Mary Louisa Egan

Only daughter of

James and Letitia Egan

Died Dec. 26, 1920

Buried with them in

Fulham Cemetery, London

Cecilia Maria Egan

Died Jan. 2, 1941

Frederick Egan and his wife

Julia Wilkinson Egan

(inscription on the back of the building)

 BENTINCK

Posted in Symbolism | Leave a comment

One into the Other

img_2842

The gravestone in the St. Adalbert Catholic Cemetery in Chicago depicts Christ on the cross. The gravestone is a moving and expressive representation demonstrating the pain and the suffering of Christ on the cross. The symbol of Jesus Christ hanging on the cross is called a crucifix. The word crucifix is from Latin and is the combination of two words—cruci and fixus—which translates to one fixed to a cross.

The Latin cross is universally recognized as the symbol of Christianity. Though it may look simple to the eye, the symbol is imbued with deep meaning to all Christians. William Henry Deacy in Memorials: To-Day for To-Morrow published by Georgia Marble Company of Tate, describes the symbolism of the Latin cross: “Faith had brought Him to Calvary. The Betrayal, the Trial, the piercing Crown of Thorns, the tortuous road to Golgotha, the cruel weight of the Cross, the hour of Crucifixion—through all these Faith had led Him on. …the Cross of Calvary, instrument of the Passion… a memorial of the Faith, the Chosen Symbol…

In the gravestone below from the St. Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Cemetery in Chicago, the image of Jesus is depicted standing on a cloud as risen from the dead. On this gravestone the body of Christ forms the cross. In that way the figure of Christ becomes one with the most recognizable symbol of Christianity morphing one into the other.

img_2730

Posted in Symbolism | Leave a comment

Government Issue

img_3945

13615.

CAPT. DAN’L M.

KEYS

INDEPENDENT

WEST VA.

RANGERS.

In national military cemeteries across the United States standing tall and straight are rows of “Government Issue” white marble gravestones. Those gravestones are a third iteration. Not long after the start of the Civil War, Quartermaster General Montgomery Meigs was charged with burying the soldiers being lost in each successive battle of the war. The soldiers close to the front in Washington D.C. were being buried in military cemeteries around Arlington. By May of 1864, soldiers were buried on the grounds of Arlington House—the Ancestral home of Robert E. Lee.

img_3941

The first markers constructed for the fallen soldiers were made of wood but decayed at a very fast rate. It was clear very quickly that wood would not be a permanent solution. The second solution was to make the markers out of cast iron. To prevent rusting the outside of the marker was to be coated in a veneer of zinc. Only one of these markers remain in the Arlington national Cemetery, that for Captain Daniel Keys. The zinc coating gives the marker a faint blue cast. One side of the marker depicted a soldier, the other side had the fallen soldier’s information.

img_4098

img_4101

The military decided wood nor zinc-coated cast iron was the right material. White marble was chosen as more traditional and appropriate. Each white marble gravestone is to be 13 inches wide, 4 inches thick and 42 inches tall—with 24 inches to show above ground. Soldiers who fought for the North have segmented (or rounded tops) while their Confederate counterparts were issued pointed top tablets.

img_4104

Posted in Zinc Markers | Leave a comment

The General of the Night

img_4086

HENRY W LAWTON

MAJOR GENERAL – U S V

BORN MARCH 17, 1843 DIED DEC. 19, 1899

KILLED IN ACTION PHIIPPINE ISLANDS

MARY C LAWTON

WIFE OF HENRY W LAWTON

The Henry Ware Lawton marker is in the Arlington National Cemetery at Arlington, Virginia, on what was at one time the Robert E. Lee plantation. The Smithsonian sculpture database notes that the Lawton monument was created by sculptor Myra Reynolds Richards (1881-1934). Richards was an Indiana-born sculptor and teacher. She studied at the Herron Art Institute in Indianapolis, in New York under famed artist Isidore Konti, and also the Academie Scandivave in Paris. Her most notable works were created and exhibited in Indiana: A statue of James Whitcomb Riley, the famous Hoosier poet, which was unveiled at the Hancock County courthouse at Greenfield, Indiana, in 1918; The Murphy Memorial Drinking fountain at the Carroll County Courthouse, also in 1918; two works that have been stolen—Pan and Syrinx created for the Depew Memorial Fountain in Indianapolis; and The Bird Boy unveiled in 1924 for the Columbus Central Middle School.

Sculptor Myra Reynolds Richards

Sculptor Myra Reynolds Richards

The bronze Henry Ware Lawton monument was cast by the Roman Bronze Works of New York. The Smithsonian sculpture catalog describes the work as “resembling an abstract casket, each corner composed of a palm tree with fronds extending to the tapered top. At each end is a boy wearing only a loincloth, with arms uplifted and hands clasped behind his head, sheltered by the palm fronds. The bottom of the gravestone widens and is multi-tiered. Each side of the gravestone is inscribed.” It could also be described as a sarcophagus that portrays the jungle in which he fought his last battle in what was a long and distinguished career serving with distinction in the Civil War, the Apache Wars, the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War.

Lawton was born on March 17, 1843, at Maumee, Ohio, the son of George W. Lawton and Catherine Daley Lawton. The same year Henry Lawton was born, his father, a millwright, moved the family to Fort Wayne, Indiana. Most of Lawton’s youth was spent between Indiana and Ohio. Lawton volunteered for a three-month call in the Company E of the 9th Indiana Volunteers in the early part of the Civil War. When his three-month stint was up, he re-enlisted in the 30th Indiana Infantry. He fought in several major battles and by the end of the war had been promoted to Brevet Colonel after having received the Medal of Honor.

After studying at Harvard, Lawton accepted a 2nd lieutenant’s commission, and joined the 41st Infantry Regiment on July 28, 1866, which saw action in the Apache Wars. Lawton not only earned a reputation for being a fierce fighter but also compassionate toward the Native Americans. Lawton advocated on behalf of the Indians who were being cheated out of food allotments by the local Indian Agency.

General Henry Ware Lawton

General Henry Ware Lawton

In May 1898, after having serving continuously in several different position in the armed forces, including as Inspector General, Lawton was appointed Brigadier General and given of the 2nd Division, which was being sent to Cuba during the Spanish-American War.

img_4083

Lawton was transferred to the Philippine-American War front to command the 1st Division of Eight Army. It was during this campaign that Lawton received the nickname, The General of the Night, from General Emilio Aquinaldo, his opponent during the Philippine-American War. Aquinaldo is known that have said that “Lawton attacked him so often at night that he never knew when Lawton was coming.” Lawton was shot and killed on December 19, 1899, by a Filipino sharpshooter during the Battle of Paye. After a funeral service in the Paco Cemetery in Manila, Lawton’s body was transported to the United States and buried at Arlington National Cemetery on February 9, 1900.

img_4085

Posted in Famous graves, Symbolism | Leave a comment